１．I’ll never forget the discomfort I felt long ago, the first time a young man ― a college student ― called me‘sir’.
２．The biological differences between the sexes obviously provide the grounds upon which are based the different social roles the sexes are expected to play.
３．The space required from the birth (manufacturing plant) to the death (automobile cemetery)
And the intervening needs, for moving, storing, housing, repairing, beauty care, mechanical health, of the automobile are such that the total expenditures made for these purposes are higher than the corresponding ones for human beings.
１． The circumstances in which a break with the past and the need for a fresh start come about vary from country to country.
２． The discoveries we make add richness and depth to our lives.
３． One of the chief difficulties citizens confront when they go off to seek refreshment from unspoilt nature is the number of other citizens who are doing the same thing.
１． Although you may, from lack of courage, refrain from action, life goes on.
２． And each day as she walked home along the Hastings Road and across the bridge past the Fleming place she used to see the Fleming boys.
注 the Hastings Road ヘイスティング家の前の道路
the Fleming place フレミング一家の家
３． No matter what you worked at, because of horse-and-wagon farm living, the average man did early morning ※chores of what people now would consider a whole day’s worth of hard labor.
※ chores : odd jobs
１． Japanese is unique in that, with minor exceptions, it is spoken only in its native country.
２． Being at a university is a very strange mode of existence. The pressures are tremendous, yet provided one has made the right choice of subject to study, it can be tremendous fun.
３． All but the most saintly or self-assured of us tend to feel threatened when someone challenges a feature of our image that is important to us, be it a theory, a baseball team a religion, a school.
１． Just as whales evolved from land-dwelling creatures, so carburetors evolved from perfume sprays.
２． She was so naive, so unconscious of herself in relation to other people, that it had never entered her head that people could discuss her behind her back.
３． The true test of intelligence is not how much we know how to do, but how we behave when we don’t know what to do.
４． Prices are continually changing, generally upwards, and no sooner do we congratulate ourselves on being a bit better off than we seem to lose all we have gained.
１． I might have stayed if my father had not told me this : be anything but an architect. Father was so fu11 of anger and sorrow about having no work as an architect in those days that he persuaded me that I, too, would be that unhappy if I studied architecture.
２． If the deer were to disappear altogether, I should experience a great loss.
３． So it was very quiet. I heard the Barstows’ dog bark,briefly,as if he had been waked by a bad dream, and then the barking stopped. Everything was quiet again.
４． Jumbo was shipped to London and placed in the world-famous Zoological Garden. He attracted many visitors but would have made no contribution to modern speech had it not been for a salesman named P, T. Barnum.
１． A number of prominent athletes have sought ※psychiatric help, and many others have abandoned promising careers, publicly stating that to continue would have caused a nervous breakdown.
※psychiatric〈psychiatry : the study and treatment of mental illness
２． The president told the elected representative of the people what he knew. To have withheld the information would have been to deny that representative a choice of action.
３． It would be absurd for us to assume that an American word, expression or construction is necessarily better than its British equivalent just because it seems novel.
１． Looking back, it seems most odd that never once in all the years that I was at school was there any general discussion about careers.
２． Scientific achievements of which we can be proud, now place in the hands of our generation, the power to destroy the whole of mankind.
３． On all those human tendencies which do not make for good citizenship, morality and social tradition pronounce a sentence of banishment.
１． People with imagination are never satisfied, and it is good that they should not be.
２． I have very short arms and even if I didn’t, the arms of a tall 18-year-old boy might be expected to be longer than mine.
３． A different form of reading might also be done, as it was in the past : reading aloud.
４． It was easy enough to imagine him in a white dinner jacket at a country club dance, and if he was not president of the club, he probably had been.
１． I kept asking them, finally begging them, to stop the car and let me out.
２． We communicate by facial expression and gesture, by touch, by dance, and, most important of all, by words spoken and written.
３． Some people in Detroit had come to know him as a gifted mechanic and maker of experimental automobiles.
４． The infant’s eagerness to speak and to learn names is a major feature of the development of speech.
１． The child need do nothing by order ; nothing is good for him but what he recognizes as good.
２． Certainly, not all groups of people are equally competent in nuclear physics or the cultivation of rice.
３． If you could turn into a rock or a plant, you would still have to act in rock or plant fashion, chemically. As it is, you act better as a human being in order to exist.
４． When a man differs little from other men, and a woman differs little from other women, there is no particular reason to regret not having married someone else.
１． Every one is not able, or inclined, to write poetry any more than every one is qualified to take part in a walking race.
２． I was subjected to the wholly irrational ※Michigan Method, which would have no more to do with romaji than with English explanations of Japanese patterns.
３． It would have been less of a surprise had Tanizaki Junichir6 or Mishima Yukio received the Nobel Prize than it was when the honor went to Kawabata.
１． Nothing makes them happier than to say that Japanese is untranslatable.
２． No other subject that you study in school can do as much for you as can Latin.
３． I was overwhelmed by many startling and unforgettable impressions, but by none more powerfully than those conveyed by the local umbrellas.
１． The more we examine foreign countries, the more we appreciate Japartese culture.
２． The arts of painting and sculpture, less abstract than the art of music, require a higher degree of truthfulness to nature.
３． The founders of all great religions and philosophies had sought solitude before truth was revealed to them. Christ withdrew to the desert, Buddha to the forest, Mohammed to his tent. Lesser men also need solitude now and then.
１． Many other things we had to do, the visiting, the afternoon calls, the small daily household tasks, seemed trivial and uninteresting.
２． In other, particularly Roman Catholic, cultures the strongest taboos may be associated with religion.
(P. Trudgill, Sociolinguistics, p.30)
３． The microelectronic technology will lead to improvements in productivity in factories and offices, changes in the way information is stored and communicated, and alterations in the content o many jobs.
４． On the other hand, if he seeks an efficient, clean, speedy, and practical service, he might be delighted in America.
We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide the general welfare and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this constitution for the United States of America.
１． The only very old person I knew when I was a boy was my grandfather.
２． He would at the slightest sign of defiance lower his eyelids angrily.
３． He was reading at twenty-eight and thirty literature which, when it is read at all, is as a rule read ten years younger.
４． I now take only the sort of book which I know by experience can be read in a hotel bedroom after a day’s sightseeing.
１． The wallpaper had once been blood red, but now was faded to a wall painting of maplike stains.
２． I meant to observe that the Devil was the father of liars, but made a mistake and said the father of lawyers.
３． I’d be grateful if you’d let me know as soon as possible about the courses and also find out if the school could fix up a room for me.
４． We want to understand the nature of language and of that part of language which is dealt with in grammar.
１． ※Washoe was said to have acquired more than fifty deaf language signs.
２． Although I am by no means rich, and never shall be, I have never been poor in the sense of wondering where the next meal is coming from.
３． I bought my watch about three months ago. I assumed that the more you paid for a watch, the better the watch you got.
It had been a year almost to the day since Dick had left. He had not left because she’d gotten fat (as she liked to think sometimes). This man had gotten his doctorate in biology――the degree Sulka had given him, in a way, by working to support him. (途中省略)
Sulka had quit her job. Now she would pot her ※begonias. Now, no doubt, she would give birth to children.
Sulka dusted and polished and sang for a year, and in the spring of 1965, gave birth to their first child, a daughter. She and Elsie lived together in the sunny California house.
※begonia：a kind of plant
Learning is a process ( a ) which we are all familiar, and it occurs in almost every activity ( b ) which we take part.
１． The very person upon whom the child depends for its safety can easily become a tyrant.
２． All tourists cherish an illusion, of which no amount of experience can ever completely cure them.
３． They often prefer a calm, thoughtful life from which all extreme emotions and violent colors have been removed.
１． To go to Pompei today is to take a trip backward in a time machine.
２． It is possible to predict where the next man to enter the waiting-room will seat himself.
３． I’ve had a sort of accident i I wonder if I could use your phone to call a taxi.
４． There’s not an experienced player alive who hasn’t practically won the game on the tennis court only to lose it in his head and in the final score.
１． I get very tired of people asking me what use are the animals I am trying to preserve.
２． Rising sharply behind the city was the 4,000-foot bulk of Mount Vesuvius.
３． Having entered the University to study law, I thought I had closed the book of Shakespeare’s plays for ever.
４． Injured, I did not go out.
５． But a cat is amazingly clever. Left to its own devices it can do surprising things.
２１．メイシ句A of Bではことばを補え
１． The purpose is the further understanding of natural phenomena.
２． The mothers of high school sophomores feared that an absence of such length might endanger their children’s college-entrance examinations, yet away.
３． Education is an opportunity, not a ceremony. It means the sacrifice of gaiety at the age when gaiety is prized highest.
４． By nature it would seem that man is a ※tropical animal. It would seem his invasion and settlement of temperature and cold lands awaited and depended upon his discovery of fire and the development of clothing.
１． I found a lamp and a bottle of wine upset. The lamp was thrown off the desk on which it had stood.
２． Future historians of Britain may be ※baffled by one unanswered question about the country’s industrial decline.
※ (be) baffled by~ ｢～に当惑する｣
３． I met a young man who aspired to become a novelist. Knowing that I was in the profession, he asked me to tell him how he should set to work to realize his ambition.
１．There are only two ways of using language――the scientific and the poetic.
２． She is especially suspicious of two things――strange men and boiled eggs.
３． We are surrounded with things which we have not made and which have a life and structure different from our own : trees, flowers, grasses, rivers, hills, clouds.
４． I have put forward the view that science is a world picture. It is not a technique ; it is not a form of power ; it is not even simply an accumulation of knowledge.
１． I got accustomed to being called ”sir” and ”Mr.Middleton”. I felt quite comfortable with these ”titles of respect.” Now I rather miss them when they are withdrawn.
２． Indeed, surprising differences in people’s conceptions of friendship emerge when they begin to talk about what it means to them.
３． Shakespeare seems to have read about everything. But his reading is not merely that of a scholar, but that of a man who is simply interested in what he reads.
１．The sky is cloudless blue, with the summer sun directly overhead.
２． Forests were cut down for lumber, with no attempt to plant new trees.
３． The mines were abandoned with much valuable ※ore left in them.
※ ore 鉱石
４． Bedtime came, with laughter and gaiety up to the last moment.
５． I sent those books to discouraged friends, always with the same happy result.
１． One learns soon enough that only a fool understands the Chinese quickly.
２． Once the miniskirt went out of fashion, and girl wearing one looked quite silly.
３． The look in his sadly humorous eyes is one of deep admiration.
４． Primitive man raised himself from such a low position to one of comparative plenty.
５． The last newcomer will be forced to select a seat that places him right next to one of the already seated men.
- They see Japan as the one ”Eastern” country that has fully industrialized.
2. The parents may try to think their adolescents as young children.
Before the Second World War the army saw its main function as being to maintain law and order at home, and regarded the fighting of foreign war as its secondary role.
4. Observers and journalists still like to depict Japan as an upside-down place, fundamentally absurd.
- There many powerful storms bring death to large numbers of people.
2. Albert Einstein spent the rest of his life tidying up the discoveries and arranging them.
3. Would you help us by taking care of him while he lives ?
4. Much of our attention has been focused on the problem of raising the living standards of the poor in our society up to that prevailing among the more affluent members.
- The moving picture is the only art today that appeals to everybody, as did religious art in times past.
2. Japanese popular literatures are likely to display far greater elegance than their Western equivalents do.
3. Although it was accepted that the body had been programmed to last for the classic three-score-years-and-ten, until now there was an all too eloquent proof that very few bodies ever did.
- I saw the girl I secretly loved laughing with others.
2. You will read about this in our newspapers and hear it discussed widely wherever you go.
3. With every decade I find some new pieces coming into place.
4. You can almost smell meat sizzling over a charcoal fire.
5. May watched him cry a flood for 20 minutes.
- People do not think it is unladylike for a woman to compete in sports.
2. Not frequently, however, it is the pursuit rather than the attainment of wealth that produces the most happiness.
3. We always have a slight feeling of superiority when someone else suffers a tragedy, and it makes us feel good to feel bad about it.
4. Labor union members naturally identified their own economic interests with those of the company that permanently employed them, and therefore they not want to hurt it economically.
1) The deep prejudice against the use of the left hand will not be so easily controlled.
2) This is our prayer for Charles and Diana. May the burdens we lay on them be matched by the love which we support them in the years to come.
3) The suggestion that athletes should compete as individuals might be too much to hope for.
Their Japanese friends would not talk about Japan and Japanese things, but always tried to talk about their present life in Britain.
イ. When he asked me, I said I would not go.
ロ. My mother would punish me whenever I was naughty.
ハ. The door would not open, however hard I tried to.
ニ. Oh, the front door-bell would ring while I’m upstairs.
- Yet of these four American words gas has probably made the most progress in Britain.
2. In a strange place, immigrants make wherever they can for the places where they will find them.
3. ”Until that day comes, I’ll never tell a single soul about this place,” I thought. My mind was firmly made up.
4. Other people make the same or a similar point by contrasting knowledge with mere data or information.
- It isn’t that difficult.
1) I can’t jump that high.
2) The trouble is that his son won’t come back.
3) That tall tree needs cutting.
4) That is not so difficult.
2. I told her I had never met her but that I knew where she was living.
1) This is the only Chinese restaurant that I know of in this town.
2) It was my brother that helped me most.
3) My father gave me lots of money but that was not what I wanted.
4) He said that he would be away on vacation for a few weeks.
3. The ancient poets said that words were the winged creatures of the air.
1) This is the very book that I wanted.
2) Are you mad that you should say such a thing ?
3) Look at the dog that is running over there.
4) I believe that you’ll get on in the world.
３６．Do it yourself ワンセルフの巻
- Physical differences are not so difficult to adapt oneself to as religious and ethical ones.
2. The sheer fact of finding myself loved was unbelievable.
注 sheer 全くの
3. He was having a nightmare. He knew it was going to be bad and he resigned himself to how bad it was going to be.
注 nightmare 悪夢
- It shows a lack of imagination and the typical Japanese inability to put oneself in another person’s shoes.
- She always found something to excuse, and as a rule to love, in the roughest of people and other animals.
2. Alan doesn’t have time to spend listening to Miles, a TV personality, not until he sees some visitors from space with Miles in the TV studio.
3. He becomes a lawyer hunting vainly for lawsuits and playing the trombone wistfully of an evening.
注 lawsuit 訴訟，告訴 wistfully 物思いにふけって
- Life is very possible on Venus because there is nitrogen there.
注 nitrogen 窒素
But in certain other types of activity experience is more important than sharpness of brain, and there one usually finds that a person reaches his or her peak much later in life.
3. If someone tells us to go into the garden and see if we can find anything, he is setting us a task without an ending.
注 set~a task ～に仕事を課す
- Fighting to possess a desired object is straightforward and rational, however disastrous its consequences.
注 disastrous 悲惨な，ひどい
- We read fiction. We like it because fiction, as an image of life, stimulates and gratifies our interest in life.
2. ※High blocks of flats have lacked the obvious amenities, such as central heating, constant hot-water supply, electrically operated lifts from top to bottom, and so on.
※ High blocks of flats (英)、高層アパート
In the town the boy was apprenticed to a master craftsman in whose household he lived with other apprentices ; here he learnt not only the ways business but also the rules and customs of his trade.
4. So language is probably the greatest breeder of friendship in the world. Misunderstandings and suspicions are cleared away by it.
- Flora might turn out to be a charming person and Dorothy would prefer her companv to ours.
2. One day, as I was driving down a hill near my home, I saw an empty Kuruma coming up. The next minute one of the shafts of the Kuruma was in my horse’s shoulder.
3. But, poor as the family were, young Sam Johnson had much pride.
4. If the same two people meet again by chance, even years later they pick up the friendship.
In German, the word ”sympathy” takes two forms–one form means sympathizing with another person’s sorrow ; the second form means sympathizing with another person’s joy.
To sympathize is to be in harmony with someone else’s feelings. But in English, we always use it to mean ”feeling sorry for,” and the opposite sense of the word seems to be wholly lost.
Yet it is much easier to sympathize with sorrow than to sympathize with joy. We always have a slight feeling of superiority when someone else suffers a tragedy, and it makes us feel good to feel bad about it.
But when someone we know is rejoicing, is radiant, is successful, how much sympathv do we then feel ? Are we able to harmonize our emotions with his, or do we rather feel a pang of bitterness and envy ?
I know a good many people who are eager to sympathize with disaster ; in fact, some of them spend a lifetime in looking for disaster to sympathize with.
- According to T.S. Eliot’s The Waste Land, ”April is the cruelest month.” But I think that if Eliot had lived in Japan he might have revised that view. In this country the cruelest months are definitely February and March. It isn’t that the world of nature is cruel, because winter weather isn’t all that harsh in most parts of Japan. What makes February and March cruel for many people here is the entrance examination season, which adversely affects the lives of hundreds of thousands of people in Japan every year.
2. Some people believe that international sport creates goodwill between the nations and that if countries lay games together they will learn to live together. Others say that the opposite is true I that international contests encourage false national pride and lead to misunderstanding and hatred. There is probably some truth in both arguments, but in recent years the Olympic Games have done little to support the view that sport encourages international brotherhood.
- Ideally a scientist hopes to accumulate enough evidence to prove his hypothesis. Then he hopes to get further evidence which will drive him on to a better hypothesis. In practice this rarely happens and scientists, being human, are more inclined to look only for the evidence that will support their own idea.
2. At the worst, this quality of conservatism means never doing anything for the first time. It is that of sheep following each other without any clear idea of their direction. At the best, it involves the realistic attitude of taking things as they are and making the best of a bad job.
注 conservatism 保守主義 make the best of~ ～をおおいに利用する
- The bird is regarded as a harmful bird in Thailand, because it eats rice. However, the bird is considered useful during the off-season, because it eats weeds.
2. It is true that we have scholarship and devices for self-support of college students. But our scholarship are too few to accommodate those who deserve them.
3. The rural village typical of many countries in Europe and Asia–a collection of homes, close together–is virtually unknown in 20th-century America. In the United States, instead, each farm family usually lives separately on its own fields.
It’s worth remembering that new’ doesn’t necessarily mean ‘better’ ! Everything these days seems to be computerized or digital. Washing machines, motorcars, sewing machines, stereo systems and television sets–all are now likely to have a microcomputer built in to control some function or other. Radios, clocks, watches, meters and gauges have a digital display instead of a traditional digital pointer. The magic words ‘computer’ and ‘digital’ have, of course, nearly the same meaning. A digital computer works by processing numbers and giving the numerical results. It’s all very exciting until you start to find out the hidden problems.
While most people would agree that the rise of technology has brought many benefits to society, a few are beginning to wonder whether the passion for technological advances may have been carried too far.
They are asking whether some equipment is becoming so complex that it is beginning to create more problems than it solves. Critics maintain that this is the case, for example, with some modem office equipment, which, they argue, has become too complicated.
- Mr. Utterson was sitting by his fireside one evening after dinner, when he was surprised to receive a visit from Poole.
2. Our work will never be done until we have succeeded in abolishing war.
3. We may be able to write a letter with no grammatical mistakes, provided the letter is not too long.
4. In countries where the vast majority of homes have television receivers it is natural that people should feel particularly concerned about the effects of programs on children.
- I was a Crow. That is my chief memory of what went on inside the elementary school. In music class the singers were divided into three groups I Nightingales, Robins, and Crows. When visitors came to hear us sing, the Crows were taken out of the room. I never understood why I was a Crow. As I heard it, I sang rather well.
2. When you take a drink it does not inevitably indicate that you are thirsty. In the human zoo, eating and drinking have come to serve many functions. Like a wine-taster, you may merely savour the flavour and then spit the liquid out. Under certain circumstances, you may be prepared to swallow a sheep’s eyeball in order to maintain your social status.
注 savour 味わう
- The average brain is naturally lazy and trends to take the line of least resistance.
Poison to a snake is merely a luxury ; it enables it to get its food with very little effort, no more effort than one bite.
3. In many countries, the basic expectation of man’s continued existence is far from assured.
4. Our language for the brain is limited and unimaginative when you consider the great wealth of expressions that speak for the heart.
- A society that fails to take any steps to save itself cannot be called psychologically well.
2. The doctor was convinced that her deafness was simply the result of old age.
3. Care must be taken to make certain that all literature falls within the reading levels of the children.
4. When there is a series of puns in a poem only thirty-one syllables long, the translation must be expanded to several times that length.
- Sitting under a bright lamp, surrounded by the dark, made me feel defenseless.
2. The high cost of petroleum discourages farmers from using as much energy as they otherwise would.
3. Our need for heroes to worship generally makes us disregard or deny what is ordinary in a great man.
4. A Iittle consideration will enable one to see that the reason for this could not be that the Eskimos are different in human nature from others but that their unsuitable living conditions have so far prevented them from gathering in large numbers for organised fighting.
The train rolled into the depot. Aunt Maggie and I got off and walked slowly through the crowds into the station. I looked about to see if there were signs saying : FOR WHITE-FOR COLORED. I saw none. Black people and white people moved about.
注 depot＝railway station
| C.PEARL SWALLOW
He died of bad oyster.
That is carved on a tombstone in a graveyard in Maine――Paris Hill, I think the place is called. The man’s name was good for such an end, but probably the end was not good.
If he really died of a bad oyster he was a most miserable man.
- Now that you are an adult,
2. But for pepper and salt,
3. The more you know,
4. Busy as I am every day,
5. Tell me what you want,
A I shall be happy some day.
B the more you realize your ignorance.
C and you shall have it.
D do anything on your own responsibility.
E I cannot go to the cinema with you.
F you take sugar and honey too much.
G I never fail to take a walk in the morning.
H how tasteless our food would be !
次の英文の空欄（ １ ～ ９ ）に入れるのに最も適当な語を，下に示した①～⑩のうちから１つずつ選べ。ただし，同じ語を繰り返し選んではいけない。
It’s always easy to pick faults in other people. None
of us is 1 after all. The sad thing is that many people seem to find 2 so difficult to overlook faults in others. They ignore the good things in a person’s 3 and concentrate on the 4 A Persian writer once said : ”If you know a man who has ten faults and one good quality, try to think as . 5 of the faults as you can, and to 6 the most of his one 7 quality. And if you know a man who has ten virtues and one fault, 8 him for the former and do all you can to forget the 9 .”
①bad ②character ③good ④it⑤latter ⑥little ⑦make ⑧much ⑨perfect ⑩praise
- a . Those horses were beautiful animals.
b . Long ago there lived an Arab.
c . Their owner loved them next to his sons.
d . Each of them was as fast as the wind, as gracefuil as a deer, and as prentle as a dove.
e . He had neither gold nor land, but he had seven teen horses.
2. a . For example, the word elevator is American English.
b. There are grammatical differences between American and British English.
c . It is true that some things have different names in America and England.
d . Englishmen call the same thing a lift.
e . An American asks, ”Do you have a car ?”, whereas an Englishman would ask, ”Have you a car ?”
空所（下線部分）のそれぞれに，下の①～⑤の文を１つずつ入れて，最もよく意味の通るようにせよ。ただし，解答は １ ～ ２ に入る番号のみを書け。
Yesterday I went to Lake Park.＿___＿ ＿_____ １ ２ ＿___＿
① On my way home I thought about how lucky we
were to have such a nice park in our city.
② Their tails and feet were in the air and their backs
and heads were under water.
③ As I entered the park, two baby birds ran along the
ground and hid in a flower bed.
④Just as I left the park, a squirrel ran past me with a nut in its mouth and carried it into a tree.
⑤ In the middle of the park, I watched ducks getting food from the lake.
The life-styles of people in the United States have been changing gradually. Today the nuclear family can no longer serve as the ideal model for society. Most people live outside the classical nuclear family form. Today a fifth of all households in the United States consists of a person living alone.
Strange to say, children in the West do not apparently catch dragonflies and cicadas as Japanese children do. Although dragonflies fly in marshland and other places, the children show no special interest in them, apparently regarding them as insignificant.
注 dragonflies＝とんぼ cicadas＝せみ
What they call ”the first floor” in America is called
”the ＿＿＿＿＿ floor in England.
①base ②ground ③primary ④second
In England, as in all Western countries, we are accustomed to the alphabet, from A to Z. But even in the West we know there are other ways of writing. In Greek and in Hebrew there are (or were) other
alphabets, systems of writing according to the sound of different letters. In ancient Egyptian there are (or were) (１)hieroglyphics,sacred characters in which the meaning of words is conveyed in pictorial form. So (２)when I came to Japan I wasn’t at all surprised to find a different form of writing――or different forms of writing――from what l had a been accustomed to in England.
- Every day at peak rush hours, when drivers go to or from work, they face bumper-to-bumper traffic.
2. By the year 2000 the population of the world may be 7,000 million. This great increase in world population will cause many problems I shortage of housing: shortage of facilities and psychological stress.
3. It is language that distinguishes man from the rest of the animal world. At one time it was common to define man as a thinking animal, but we can hardly imagine thought without words. More recently, man has often been described as a tool-making animal, but language itself is the most remarkable tool that man has invented, and is the one that makes all the others possible.
One of the most remarkable communication systems found in the nonhuman world is that of the European honeybee. Imagine the evolutionary advantage for a honeybee if it is able to communicate the location of an especially rich food source to its hive-mates when it returns to the hive. The honeybee is, in fact able to do this.
Beekeepers had long suspected that bees communicated with each-other before the properties of this communication system Were scientifically established. For example, beekeepers noticed that if a single bee happens upon a particularly rich source of nectar or pollen, other bees from the hive will soon be found at the food source in significant numbers. It was also noted that large numbers of bees from a certain hive may all be gathering at the same type of food source, while large numbers of bees from an adjacent hive may be gathering food from an entirely different type of flower. This selective food gathering suggested a coordination of efforts on the part of the bees which could be the result of some method of communication.
A : Darling, do you mind if I make a phone call before we start ?
B : ＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿
A : I am, but this is something that’s got to be done.
① I do mind. You’d better not.
② No, not at all. Go ahead. You can take your time.
③ Do you have enough time to spare ?
④ I thought you were in a hurry.
”Sarah,” he said. She was typing but the door between their offices was open for ventilation as it was late July and remarkably warm.
(１)”Yes ?” She stopped typing and turned her head with a half-smile.
”It’s my daughter’s birthday in October and I’d like
to give her some jewellery. What do you suggest ? She’s about your age.”
Sarah said, ”What does she look like ?”
”Small, dark, pretty.”
”And what sort of clothes does she wear ?”
Manson hesitated a moment. ”Sometimes perfectly formal and sometimes casual.”
Sarah said doubtfully, ”Maybe long ropes of pearls, if she wears beads. If she likes pearls, that is. I don’t
myself but a lot of people do.”
He couldn’t imagine Emily in pearls. He said, ”No, (２)I don’t think so.”
(1) ”No, I don’t think I like pearls.”
(2) ”No, I don’t think you like pearls.”
(3) ”No, I don’t think she likes pearls.”
(4)”No, I don’t think a lot of people 1ike pearls.”
【住所】 愛知県名古屋市東区筒井２丁目４－５２ ３Ｆ